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How to do a Systematic Review

Systematic review in research is a detailed search to find out all related information on a topic or subject and analyze it. A systematic approach helps in avoiding any bias in reviewing the literature. Systematic reviews aim at critically analyzing all the relevant information related to a research question. The researcher integrates all the information that is available analyzes, evaluates …

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Quantitative and Qualitative Paradigms of Research

Quantitative and qualitative paradigms of research form two different ways of looking at the world’s phenomenon. They form two different ways to solve the problem. Some phenomenons in the world can only be solved if they are understood using qualitative paradigm and techniques. Other problems can only be solved using quantitative paradigm and techniques. In the modern world many researchers …

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Data Triangulation in Qualitative Research

Written by Saira Naeem Data triangulation in qualitative research is used as a means to make sure that the research is AffluentRobustComprehensive and Well developed What does data triangulation mean? Data triangulation is where the researcher uses two or more methods for the verification of the findings and results. Data triangulation is also called cross examination because it double or even triple checks …

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Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria in Research

It is a common practice in clinical studies to clearly identify the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the research participants. The researcher uses a criteria that defines what participants should participate in the clinical trial. The researcher also specify a criteria to explain why other participants cannot participate in the research. Factors influencing inclusion and exclusion criteria The inclusion of …

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Understanding Data Collection in Research

Written by Saira Naeem When doing research you are going to hear the words data and data collection often enough, you are going to be asked what your data is? How you are going to gather the requisite data? What methods have you used to collect the data? What were your sources of data?  And so on. Therefore, instead of …

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Data Editing in Research

Written by Saira Naeem The data which has been collected from various primary/secondary sources is RAW in nature, this means that there are likely chances of errors and inconsistencies in it. Since data collected is of pivotal importance to policy and decision makers everywhere be it governmental departments,  business organizations, health or educational institutions etc it would be better to …

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Purpose of Literature Review

Written by Saira Naeem What is the purpose of literature review in your research and why it is so important to have a thorough review of the literature before you begin your research? You cannot conduct research without having a complete and comprehensive understanding of your topic or research problem. However! The question is where do you look for the …

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Bias in Data Collection in Research

bias in data collection

Bias in data collection can be introduced by the researcher or other people involved in the data collection process. This can occur during sampling or during the construction of the instrument, as well as during the submission and gathering of data. Data collection process is an important phase of research since all the data results, analysis, evaluations, and conclusions depend …

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The Pragmatic Paradigm

The pragmatic paradigm originated in the United States in the late 19th century. The originators and contributors that are associated with the early development of pragmatic paradigm include, Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914) and William James (1842–1910). Charles Sanders was the originator behind the pragmatic paradigm while William James was his colleague he defended the idea and promoted it later. In …

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Writing and Publishing a Research Paper

Written by Saira Naeem Researchers conduct research or study a phenomenon and write research papers on them for a number of purposes, they might include the following To know about something newTo answer specific research questionsFor finding solutions to a problem, orTo offer alternatives etc Once their research is complete, they most certainly would want their papers to get published in international journals, …

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