Research Paradigm and Nature of Reality

What is the relationship between research paradigm and the nature of reality, values, and beliefs? A research paradigm can only be understood if we know about the values and beliefs that make it. These values and beliefs give way to a methodology that help us solve world problems. These values and beliefs also form a shared world view that is …

Read More »

Bias in Data Analysis in Research

bias in data analysis

Bias in data analysis is the most common type of research misconduct. Therefore, the researcher has the responsibility to eliminate or minimize bias in data analysis. Bias introduces when the researcher gives preference to some data outcomes over others in this way the researcher creates biased conclusions. Sometimes, the data itself is biased and it is impossible to analyze data …

Read More »

How to do a Systematic Review

Systematic review in research is a detailed search to find out all related information on a topic or subject and analyze it. A systematic approach helps in avoiding any bias in reviewing the literature. Systematic reviews aim at critically analyzing all the relevant information related to a research question. The researcher integrates all the information that is available analyzes, evaluates …

Read More »

Quantitative and Qualitative Paradigms of Research

Quantitative and qualitative paradigms of research form two different ways of looking at the world’s phenomenon. And hence, they form two different ways to solve the problem. For example, an empirical research question can follow a positivism paradigm. On the other hand, interpretivism or post-positivism present the solution to a social reality. The three major paradigms include, positivism, interpretivism, and …

Read More »

Data Triangulation in Qualitative Research

Research glasses

Written by Saira Naeem Data triangulation in qualitative research is used as a means to make sure that the research is AffluentRobustComprehensive and Well developed What does data triangulation mean? Data triangulation is where the researcher uses two or more methods for the verification of the findings and results. Data triangulation is also called cross examination because it double or even triple checks …

Read More »

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria in Research


It is a common practice in clinical studies to clearly identify the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the research participants. The researcher uses a criteria that defines what participants should participate in the clinical trial. The researcher also specify a criteria to explain why other participants cannot participate in the research. Factors influencing inclusion and exclusion criteria The inclusion of …

Read More »

Understanding Data Collection in Research

difficult part of research

Written by Saira Naeem When doing research you are going to hear the words data and data collection often enough, you are going to be asked what your data is? How you are going to gather the requisite data? What methods have you used to collect the data? What were your sources of data?  And so on. Therefore, instead of …

Read More »

Data Editing in Research

Written by Saira Naeem The data which has been collected from various primary/secondary sources is RAW in nature, this means that there are likely chances of errors and inconsistencies in it. Since data collected is of pivotal importance to policy and decision makers everywhere be it governmental departments,  business organizations, health or educational institutions etc it would be better to …

Read More »

Purpose of Literature Review


Written by Saira Naeem What is the purpose of literature review in your research and why it is so important to have a thorough review of the literature before you begin your research? You cannot conduct research without having a complete and comprehensive understanding of your topic or research problem. However! The question is where do you look for the …

Read More »

Bias in Data Collection in Research

bias in data collection

Bias in data collection can be introduced by the researcher or other people involved in the data collection process. This can occur during sampling or during the construction of the instrument, as well as during the submission and gathering of data. Data collection process is an important phase of research since all the data results, analysis, evaluations, and conclusions depend …

Read More »