The Pragmatic Paradigm

The pragmatic paradigm originated in the United States in the late 19th century. The originators and contributors that are associated with the early development of pragmatic paradigm include, Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914) and William James (1842–1910). Charles Sanders was the originator behind the pragmatic paradigm while William James was his colleague he defended the idea and promoted it later. In …

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Writing and Publishing a Research Paper

Publish article thesis research

Written by Saira Naeem Researchers conduct research or study a phenomenon and write research papers on them for a number of purposes, they might include the following To know about something newTo answer specific research questionsFor finding solutions to a problem, orTo offer alternatives etc Once their research is complete, they most certainly would want their papers to get published in international journals, …

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How to Write a Successful Research Paper

Research Paper

Written by Saira Naeem We all need to succeed in whatever we do in life. Whether it is on the academic, personal or professional front, we all want to be successful. However, success doesn’t come easily, success requires a certain frame of mind, an attitude, a motivation and a determination to do well in addition to knowledge and practice. Take …

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How to Write an Effective Research Paper

protocol design

Written by Saira Naeem OK, so let’s accept this we have all been there in our lives, the point that almost everyone dreads, the day when the school term ends and the lecturer comes out with seemingly impossible deadlines for the submission of the “research paper”. For many writing a research paper can be challenging. No doubt it’s an intensive and meticulous task, …

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How to Select a Research Paradigm?

selection of a research paradigm

How to select a research paradigm for your research study? Selecting a research paradigm for your research study requires a thorough understanding of what are the characteristics of each research paradigm. A research paradigm is a philosophy, methodology, epistemology, and ontology that provides complete guidelines to conduct a research. A research paradigm gives direction and path to conduct the research. Every research paradigm follows anyone of the research …

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Peer-Review in Qualitative Research

Peer-review as the name suggests is the process of checking a researcher’s work by another person expert in that field. The reason for this scrutiny is to check the validity, reliability, and authenticity of the research. Many journals today only accept peer-reviewed research. In qualitative research peer-review has long been used to validate a research before getting published. The reason …

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External Validity in Research

external validity in research

Written by Saira Naeem There are two main types of validity internal validity and external validity. While internal validity is concerned with how well the research is structured, its procedural processes (research design and methods) and how it is conducted so that a cause and effect relationship can be upheld. External validity refers to the generalizability of the research findings or conclusions. …

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Internal Validity in Research

internal validity in research

Written by Saira Naeem A researcher conducting a study or experiment generally wants two things to happen. The researcher wants the study and the findings to be valid and reliable. Validity and reliability are two most important characteristics of research. While you may feel that these two terms can be used interchangeably, one in place of the other. There’s a …

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Generalizability in Qualitative Research

generalizability in qualitative research

How to achieve generalizability in qualitative research? It has long been perceived that qualitative research lacks generalizability. The qualitative researchers argue that the aim behind qualitative research is not to achieve generalizability as the results are only relevant to a small group of population. The researchers working on quantitative research methods think that qualitative research lacks in external validity. The …

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How to Avoid Bias in Research

Bias in research

What is bias in research A bias in research can be defined as an unfair and prejudiced interest or selection of one idea, solution, outcome, or person and group over the other. In bias the reason for the selection of a particular group or idea is not based on reason, logic, assumption, or judgement. The biased selection is always based …

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