Processing Data

This category is about how to edit data in research, code data, analyze data and display it.

Discussion Chapter in a Research Paper

How to Choose topic

How do you write the discussion chapter in a research paper? This part of the research paper requires an organized structure that summarizes the salient points of the research. These salient points are the outcomes of the results part of your research. You also need to integrate your results with the work of other researchers who worked on relevant topic. …

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Bias in Data Analysis in Research

bias in data analysis

Bias in data analysis is the most common type of research misconduct. Therefore, the researcher has the responsibility to eliminate or minimize bias in data analysis. Bias introduces when the researcher gives preference to some data outcomes over others in this way the researcher creates biased conclusions. Sometimes, the data itself is biased and it is impossible to analyze data …

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Data Triangulation in Qualitative Research

Research glasses

Written by Saira Naeem Data triangulation in qualitative research is used as a means to make sure that the research is AffluentRobustComprehensive and Well developed What does data triangulation mean? Data triangulation is where the researcher uses two or more methods for the verification of the findings and results. Data triangulation is also called cross examination because it double or even triple checks …

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Understanding Data Collection in Research

difficult part of research

Written by Saira Naeem When doing research you are going to hear the words data and data collection often enough, you are going to be asked what your data is? How you are going to gather the requisite data? What methods have you used to collect the data? What were your sources of data?  And so on. Therefore, instead of …

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Data Editing in Research

Written by Saira Naeem The data which has been collected from various primary/secondary sources is RAW in nature, this means that there are likely chances of errors and inconsistencies in it. Since data collected is of pivotal importance to policy and decision makers everywhere be it governmental departments,  business organizations, health or educational institutions etc it would be better to …

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Coding in Qualitative Research

coding in qualitative research

Qualitative research is different from quantitative research in many ways. Therefore the techniques employed by the qualitative researcher in data analysis are bound to be different from those employed by the quantitative researcher. One of such techniques employed by the qualitative researcher when analyzing, interpreting and making sense of the data is called coding in qualitative research. It is assumed …

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Textual Presentation of Data

textual presentation of data

Textual presentation of data means presenting data in the form of words, sentences and paragraphs. The opposite of textual presentation is graphical presentation of data. While graphical presentation of data is the most popular and widely used in the research, textual presentation allows the researcher to present qualitative data that cannot be presented in graphical or tabular forms. Data can …

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Achieving Corroboration in Qualitative Research

The aim behind corroboration in qualitative research is to enhance validity, reliability, authenticity, replicability, and accuracy of the research. The researcher uses several tools to achieve corroboration and to reduce faulty observations, biased analysis, and inaccurate conclusions. Corroboration is necessary to maintain standards in conducting surveys, data analysis, and interpretation. The chances of bias and error is higher in survey …

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How to Achieve Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research

Trustworthiness in qualitative research

Why trustworthiness in qualitative research is important? There are many reasons but first look at the qualitative research and its nature. We know that qualitative research is a lot different in nature from quantitative research. The aims and objectives are different so does the mode of inquiry. In a qualitative research you cannot apply the same rigor and control that …

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How to Present, Analyze, and Interpret Interview Data

how to present, analyze, and interpret interview data

The most difficult job in using interview as a data collection instrument is to present, analyze, and interpret interview data. Interview data is qualitative and qualitative data needs to be analyzed in a manner that can prove its trustworthiness. As Anderson (2010) says “Qualitative research is often criticized as biased, small scale, anecdotal, and/or lacking rigor; however, when it is …

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